Objectives: By the end of the lesson you will have. 1. learnt the difference between direct & indirect speeches. 2. learnt the rules of narration according to tenses. Rules for Converting Direct to Indirect In Englisg Grammar PDF. Narration, Direct Indirect Speech Rules. When the substance of a speech is conveyed in the reporter’s words, it is called Indirect Speech. Pronouns of the First Person in the reported speech change according to the Subject of Reporting Verb.
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use the general rules for changing direct speech into indirect one. Narration since we do not make any change to the speech of a speaker at the time of. RULES: 1. Only sentences containing transitive verbs [verbs that takes one or . Rules. NARRATION: in writing or speech, the process of giving an account of a. Narrative time: the grammatical placement of the story's time- frame in the past, the present, or the future. The rules of doing Narration Change: Reporting verb.
Swearing by Allah he said to me that he would meet me. Rajib agreed with me and said that he was going there then.
He greeted her and asked how she was. He uttered silently that no one was there then. Rule- Here is the structure: Addressing me as friend he told me to give him that book for reading. You will rewrite the same form of phrase at the beginning of the reporting verb of indirect speech.
Moving beside the Indian boarder, He said to me that he was visiting the historical place. He asked Robin where he was going. Besides, you have to transform the direct speech into indirect following the structure of interrogative sentence. Being surprised, he asked me if I knew where he lived then.
In that case, we can use the expression: He said to the person spoken to that he would tell him the incident the next day. Or, Indirect: He said to me that he would tell him the incident the next day.
Now see the example of a passage narration and its transformation from direct to indirect. The Master said to the Servant that he S had lost his M new bag that day.
Swearing by Allah, the servant respectfully replied that he S had gone outside for drinking a glass of water. He M said to him S that he S could go after his M coming. He M again said that he S could wait for someone else.
He M ordered him S to pay for the bag then. The servant cried and said in the affirmative that he S was guilty for his S carelessness but then he S had no money. English Explanat ion: The 1st sentence is an assertive sentence. But the 2nd sentence is interrogative. Then, there are 3 sentences without mentioning the name of speaker before or after. But from the conversation and its context, we can assume that these speeches are spoken by the master.
Among these 3 sentences, the first 2 sentences are in assertive but the last one is in imperative. As there is the name of speaker mentioned, I have used the name also. The other elements of reported speeches such as persons, tenses of verbs, and adverbials have been changed according to the general rules following the structure of sentence categories such as assertive, interrogative, and imperative.
You have to remember and notice all the things I have explained here. Bengali Explanat ion: You can successfully change any passage narration in your exams following these 10 rules properly. So, study these rules and prepare your lesson of Passage Narration.
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Need an account? Click here to sign up. Help Center Find new research papers in: In sentences 1 and 2, sentences are given in the form of exact words as spoken by the speaker.
This is called Direct Speech or Direct form of Narration. In sentences 3 and 4 the exact words have not been used but only what has been said by the speaker; is given. This is called Indirect Speech or Indirect form of Narration.
When the exact words used by the speaker are reproduced within inverted commas, it is called Direct speech. In the Direct Speech, the sentence contains two parts. One is before comma; this is called Reporting Verb of the Narration. Other is within the inverted commas; it is called Reporting Speech.
Direct Speech Indirect Speech The exact words are used within inverted commas Inverted commas are removed. The reported speech is introduced by the The first word of the reported speech begins with a conjunction that. The exact words are not within inverted commas. A comma is put after the reporting verb to separate No comma is put after the reporting verb.
The tense of the reported speech changes in certain cases. If the reporting verb is in the Present Tense or Future Tense the verb in the reported speech is not changed.
If the reporting verb is in past tense and the Reported speech is in present tense, it changes into its corresponding past tense. Thus, Present indefinite changes into Past Indefinite. Present Continuous changes into Past Continuous. Present Perfect changes into Past Perfect. Under the same condition, Past Indefinite changes Past Perfect.
Can changes into could may into might shall into should will into would. If the Reported speech expresses some universal truth, religious truth, historical truth or a proverbial truth, its tense undergoes no change. Pronouns of the First Person in the reported speech change according to the Subject of Reporting Verb.
In the case of pronouns of 3rd Person, there is no change. If the Reporting Verb is in the Past tense, words showing nearness are changed into words showing distance. In order to change Imperative Sentences into Indirect Speech, proceed as given: Let Can be used in several ways in Imperative Sentences. To make a proposal: To permit or persuade: In such cases, let is changed into let or might be allowed to. To express a condition or supposition: In such a case, let is changed into might.
Interrogative sentences: There are two types of Interrogative sentences. Sentences beginning with a word like — What, When, Why, Where etc. Sentences beginning with some helping verb like do, does, is, am, are, was, were, has, have, had, can, could, should, may, might etc. Change the question form into assertive form and remove the sign of interrogation? Do not use any conjunction to introduce the reported speech in sentences belonging to type a above.
Exclamatory and Optative Sentences: The optative or exclamatory form is changed into Assertive form and dealth with accordingly. All other rules of change of pronouns and tenses are applied. Remember, we wish Good morning, good evening, good night etc. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles.