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However, unlike the rigorous monism of the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita also integrates dualism and theism. Numerous commentaries have been written on the Bhagavad Gita with widely differing views on the essentials, beginning with Adi Sankara's commentary on the Bhagavad Gita in the eighth century CE.
Commentators see the setting of the Bhagavad Gita in a battlefield as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of the human life. The Bhagavad Gita's call for selfless action inspired many leaders of the Indian independence movement including Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who referred to the Bhagavad Gita as his "spiritual dictionary".
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Crowd City. Therein, in the third section, the Gita forms chapters 23—40, that is 6.
An authentic manuscript of the Gita with verses has not been found. Since Shankara's time, the " verses" has been the standard benchmark for the critical edition of the Bhagavad Gita.
Each shloka line has two quarter verses with exactly eight syllables. Each of these quarters is further arranged into "two metrical feet of four syllables each", state Flood and Martin. The Pandava prince Arjuna asks his charioteer Krishna to drive to the center of the battlefield so that he can get a good look at both the armies and all those "so eager for war".
He does not want to fight to kill them and is thus filled with doubt and despair on the battlefield.
The Bhagavad Gita is the compilation of Arjuna's questions and moral dilemma, Krishna's answers and insights that elaborate on a variety of philosophical concepts. Arjuna, one of the Pandavas Krishna, Arjuna's charioteer and guru who was actually an incarnation of Vishnu Sanjaya, counselor of the Kuru king Dhritarashtra secondary narrator Dhritarashtra, Kuru king Sanjaya's audience Chapters[ edit ] Bhagavad Gita comprises 18 chapters section 25 to 42  [web 2] in the Bhishma Parva of the epic Mahabharata.
Because of differences in recensions , the verses of the Gita may be numbered in the full text of the Mahabharata as chapters 6. However, variant readings are relatively few in contrast to the numerous versions of the Mahabharata it is found embedded in, and the meaning is the same.
Some Sanskrit editions that separate the Gita from the epic as an independent text, as well as translators, however, add chapter titles such as each chapter being a particular form of yoga.
Two massive armies representing different loyalties and ideologies face a catastrophic war. With Arjuna is Krishna, not as a participant in the war, but only as his charioteer and counsel. Arjuna requests Krishna to move the chariot between the two armies so he can see those "eager for this war". He sees family and friends on the enemy side. Arjuna is distressed and in sorrow.
He wonders if it is noble to renounce and leave before the violence starts, or should he fight, and why. Top: Bengali script ; Bottom: Gurmukhi script. The warrior Arjuna whose past had focused on learning the skills of his profession now faces a war he has doubts about. Filled with introspection and questions about the meaning and purpose of life, he asks Krishna about the nature of life, soul, death, afterlife and whether there is a deeper meaning and reality. The chapter summarizes the Hindu idea of rebirth, samsara, eternal soul in each person Self , universal soul present in everyone, various types of yoga, divinity within, the nature of Self-knowledge and other concepts.
This chapter is an overview for the remaining sixteen chapters of the Bhagavad Gita. He wonders if fighting the war is "not so important after all" given Krishna's overview on the pursuit of spiritual wisdom.
Krishna replies that there is no way to avoid action karma , since abstention from work is also an action.
Every man or woman is bound by activity. Those who act selfishly create the karmic cause and are thereby bound to the effect which may be good or bad. Whatever the result, it does not affect them. Their happiness comes from within, and the external world does not bother them. Arjuna questions how Krishna could do this, when those sages lived so long ago, and Krishna was born more recently.
Krishna reminds him that everyone is in the cycle of rebirths, and while Arjuna does not remember his previous births, he does.